What Is Computer Fraud? Unraveling the Enigma!

In an era dominated by technology, the reliance on computers and the internet has become inevitable. However, with the conveniences of this digital age come vulnerabilities that malevolent actors exploit for their gain.

This article aims to shed light on the concept of computer fraud, its various forms, and the measures that can be taken to thwart such malicious activities.

Computer fraud is a criminal offense under cybercriminal law. Computer fraud occurs, for example, when a perpetrator interferes with the function of computer programs without permission, modifies them, or operates them with false deeds, and a third party incurs a financial loss. Attempts are also punishable. The penalties range from fines to imprisonment.


What Is Computer Fraud?

Computer fraud refers to the intentional and deceptive use of computer technology to manipulate, steal, or gain unauthorized access to sensitive information, resources, or systems for financial gain or other malicious purposes. It involves various fraudulent activities conducted through computers or computer networks, often exploiting vulnerabilities or weaknesses in software, hardware, or human behavior.

What Is the Main Motive of Computer Fraud?

The main motive of computer fraud is typically financial gain. Cybercriminals engage in computer fraud to unlawfully obtain money, valuable assets, or sensitive information from individuals, organizations, or businesses.

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This illicit pursuit of financial advantage drives various forms of computer fraud, including hacking, phishing, identity theft, and other cybercrimes.

However, it’s important to note that computer fraud can also be motivated by factors beyond financial gain, such as espionage, revenge, disruption, ideological reasons, or personal satisfaction. The complexity of motives underscores the diverse nature of cybercriminal activities and the need for comprehensive cybersecurity measures to counter these threats effectively.

Types of Computer Fraud

Let’s delve into each of these types of computer fraud in detail, along with real-world examples:

Identity Theft and Phishing Scams

Identity theft involves stealing someone’s personal information, such as social security numbers, bank account details, or passwords, with the intent to commit fraud.

Phishing is a form of identity theft where scammers use deceptive emails, messages, or websites to trick victims into revealing their sensitive information.

In a phishing scam, a victim receives an email that appears to be from their bank, requesting them to verify their account information urgently by clicking on a link provided in the email. The link leads to a fake website that looks identical to the bank’s official site. The victim unwittingly enters their login credentials, which the scammers then capture. The scammers can now access the victim’s bank account and potentially steal money.

Online Financial Frauds

Online financial fraud involves various schemes aimed at deceiving individuals into making unauthorized financial transactions or investments.

A classic example is the “Nigerian Prince” scam. Victims receive an email from someone claiming to be a Nigerian prince who needs help transferring a large sum of money out of the country.

The victim is promised a substantial reward in return for their assistance. However, the victim is required to pay upfront fees or provide their bank account information to facilitate the transfer.

In reality, there is no prince, and the scammers simply steal the victim’s money.

Data Breaches and Hacking

Data breaches occur when unauthorized individuals gain access to a system or database and steal sensitive information. Hacking involves exploiting vulnerabilities in computer systems to gain unauthorized access.

One typical example related to this fraud is the Equifax case. In 2017, Equifax, one of the major credit reporting agencies, experienced a massive data breach. Hackers exploited a vulnerability in the company’s website software and accessed personal information, including social security numbers and credit card details, of approximately 147 million individuals. The breach had severe consequences for the victims, including the potential for identity theft and financial losses.

E-commerce Scams

E-commerce scams involve fraudulent activities within online marketplaces or retail platforms, often targeting both buyers and sellers.

A common e-commerce scam is the “fake merchandise” scam. Scammers create fake online stores that offer popular products at unbelievably low prices.

Unsuspecting customers place orders and make payments but never receive the products. The scammers disappear, leaving the victims without money or the promised items.

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Social Engineering Techniques Exploited in Computer Fraud

Here are explanations for each of the social engineering techniques exploited in computer fraud:


Pretexting involves creating a fabricated scenario or pretext to manipulate individuals into divulging confidential information or performing actions they normally wouldn’t. This technique often involves building a false sense of trust or credibility.

Example: A pretexting scam might involve an attacker posing as an IT support technician who contacts an employee, claiming to need their login credentials for a system update. The attacker convinces the employee that it’s a legitimate request, gaining access to sensitive company data.


Baiting involves enticing victims with something appealing, such as a free software download, to lure them into taking an action that compromises their security. The bait is often delivered through physical media, like a USB drive or digital downloads.

Example: In a baiting attack, an attacker might leave infected USB drives in a public place, labeled as “Company Payroll Details.” A curious individual picks up the USB drive, inserts it into their computer, and unknowingly installs malware, giving the attacker unauthorized access to their system.


Tailgating, also known as “piggybacking,” occurs when an attacker gains unauthorized physical access to a restricted area by closely following an authorized person. This technique exploits the natural inclination to hold the door open for someone.

Example: An attacker without proper credentials might wait near a secure entrance and ask an employee exiting the building to hold the door. The employee, thinking the person is authorized, lets them in, granting the attacker access to the premises.

Spear Phishing

Spear phishing is a targeted form of phishing where the attacker customizes their fraudulent communication to a specific individual or organization. This makes the attack more convincing and increases the likelihood of success.

Example: In a spear phishing attack, an attacker researches a company’s employees and their roles. They then send an email to an employee in the finance department, posing as the company’s CEO, requesting an urgent funds transfer. The email appears legitimate, and the employee follows the instructions, unknowingly transferring money to the attacker’s account.

Real-life Examples of Computer Fraud

Let’s take a closer look at each of these notorious computer fraud cases:

The Bernie Madoff Ponzi Scheme

Bernie Madoff orchestrated one of the most infamous financial frauds in history. He ran a massive Ponzi scheme that defrauded investors of billions of dollars. Madoff promised consistently high returns, luring investors to entrust their money with him. Instead of investing the funds as promised, he used new investors’ money to pay earlier investors, creating the illusion of profit.

Impact: The scheme collapsed in 2008 during the financial crisis, revealing losses of around $65 billion in principal. Many investors, including individuals, charities, and institutions, suffered devastating financial losses. Bernie Madoff was sentenced to 150 years in prison for his role in the fraud.

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The Equifax Data Breach

In 2017, Equifax, one of the major credit reporting agencies, experienced a massive data breach that exposed the sensitive personal information of approximately 147 million individuals. Hackers exploited a vulnerability in Equifax’s website software to gain unauthorized access to names, social security numbers, birthdates, addresses, and, in some cases, credit card numbers.

Impact: The breach led to significant concerns about identity theft and potential financial fraud for the affected individuals. Equifax faced widespread criticism for its handling of the breach and the delay in disclosing it. The incident highlighted the importance of strong cybersecurity measures and the need for companies to promptly address and communicate about data breaches.

The Bangladesh Bank Heist

In 2016, cybercriminals attempted to steal nearly $1 billion from the Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh. The attackers used fraudulent SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) messages to transfer funds from the Bangladesh Bank’s Federal Reserve Bank of New York account to various accounts in the Philippines.

Impact: While the attackers successfully transferred $81 million, most of the attempted transfers were thwarted. The incident raised concerns about the security of the global financial system and highlighted vulnerabilities in the SWIFT messaging system. Investigations pointed to a North Korean hacking group as the likely perpetrator of the attack.

How To Combat Computer Fraud

In the ongoing battle against computer fraud, technology continues to evolve and provide innovative solutions to detect, prevent, and mitigate cyber threats. Let’s see how it works:

AI and Machine Learning in Fraud Detection

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) play a crucial role in detecting and preventing computer fraud. These technologies analyze vast amounts of data to identify patterns, anomalies, and suspicious activities that might indicate fraudulent behavior.

How it works:

AI and ML algorithms can learn from historical data to understand normal patterns of user behavior. When deviations or unusual activities are detected, such as a sudden increase in transactions or access from an unfamiliar location, the system can trigger alerts for further investigation.

For example, banks and financial institutions use AI-powered fraud detection systems to analyze customer transactions in real-time. If a credit card transaction appears out of character for a specific user (e.g., a large overseas purchase), the system might flag it for verification or even temporarily block the transaction until the user confirms its legitimacy.

Encryption and Secure Communication

Encryption is a critical technology for safeguarding sensitive data and ensuring secure communication. It involves converting data into a code that authorized parties can only deciphered with the correct decryption key.

How it works:

When data is encrypted, even if cybercriminals intercept it, they cannot access the actual information without the encryption key. This prevents unauthorized access to sensitive data, even if a breach occurs.

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One of the examples is the use of Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption. It is widely used for securing online communication. The padlock icon in your browser’s address bar indicates that the website is using SSL encryption to protect the data you send and receive, such as login credentials or credit card information.

Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)

MFA adds an extra layer of security by requiring users to provide multiple forms of verification before granting access to an account or system.

How it works:

In addition to the traditional username and password, MFA might require a second factor, such as a unique code sent to your mobile device or generated by an authentication app. This makes it significantly harder for unauthorized users to gain access, even if they have obtained the login credentials.

Many online services, such as email providers and banking apps, offer MFA. After entering your password, you might receive a text message with a one-time code that you need to enter to complete the login process.

How to Protect Yourself Against Computer Fraud

There are essential steps you can take to protect yourself against computer fraud:

Strengthening Password Security

Creating strong and unique passwords is a fundamental step in safeguarding your online accounts.

  • Use Complex Passwords: Craft passwords with a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters.
  • Avoid Common Words: Don’t use easily guessable information like your name, birthdate, or “password.”
  • Use Long Phrases: Consider using a memorable phrase or sentence instead of a single word.
  • Unique for Each Account: Use different passwords for different accounts to prevent a breach of one compromising others.
  • Password Manager: Consider using a reputable password manager to generate, store, and autofill complex passwords.

Keeping Software and Systems Updated

Regularly updating your software and devices is crucial to ensure you have the latest security patches and protections.

  • Enable Automatic Updates: Set your operating system, applications, and antivirus software to update automatically.
  • Keep Firmware Updated: This includes updating router firmware, as vulnerabilities can be exploited by hackers.

Exercising Caution with Email and Links

Many computer fraud attempts occur through phishing emails and malicious links.

  • Verify Senders: Be cautious of unsolicited emails, especially if they ask for personal or financial information.
  • Check URLs: Hover over links before clicking to see where they lead. Ensure they’re legitimate and secure (https://).
  • Don’t Download Suspicious Attachments: Be wary of email attachments, especially from unknown sources.
  • Avoid Clicking on Pop-Ups: Pop-up ads and windows can be used to spread malware; close them using the X in the corner.

How Safeguard Businesses from Computer Fraud

Businesses implement a variety of strategies and measures to safeguard against computer fraud and cyber threats. Here are key steps they take to protect their operations, data, and customers:

Security Policies and Training

Businesses establish comprehensive security policies outlining acceptable use of technology, data handling procedures, and guidelines for recognizing and reporting potential threats. Regular employee training ensures that staff members understand security best practices and are aware of the latest cyber threats.

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Network Security

Robust network security measures are crucial to prevent unauthorized access and data breaches.

  • Firewalls: Install and maintain firewalls to filter incoming and outgoing network traffic, blocking unauthorized access.
  • Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS): Monitor network activity for suspicious patterns and block potential threats in real-time.
  • Network Segmentation: Divide networks into segments to limit the potential impact of a breach and control access to sensitive data.

Data Encryption

Encrypting sensitive data, both in transit and at rest, ensures that the data remains unreadable even if attackers gain access without the proper decryption keys.

Access Control

Implement strict access controls to ensure that only authorized personnel can access sensitive systems and data.

  • Role-Based Access Control (RBAC): Assign access rights based on job roles, limiting employees to only the resources they need.
  • Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): Require multiple forms of verification for accessing critical systems.

Legal Acts Related to Computer Fraud in The US

In the United States, computer fraud and cybercrimes are addressed by several laws and acts, both at the federal and state levels. One of the primary federal laws related to computer fraud is the “Computer Fraud and Abuse Act” (CFAA). Here’s an overview:

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA)

Enacted in 1986, the CFAA is a federal law that criminalizes a wide range of computer-related activities, including unauthorized access to computer systems, theft of information, and intentional damage to computer systems.

Key provisions of the CFAA include

  1. Unauthorized Access: The CFAA makes it illegal to intentionally access a computer system without authorization or to exceed authorized access. This includes accessing systems to obtain, alter, or destroy information.
  2. Fraud and Obtaining Information: It is a violation of the CFAA to use a computer to fraudulently obtain anything of value, including information, by knowingly accessing a protected computer without authorization.
  3. Damage to Computer Systems: The CFAA prohibits intentionally causing damage to a computer system, such as introducing malware, viruses, or other harmful code.
  4. Trafficking in Passwords: The CFAA also addresses trafficking in passwords or other access credentials that are used to access computer systems without authorization.
  5. Penalties: Violations of the CFAA can result in criminal and civil penalties, including fines and imprisonment, depending on the severity of the offense.

Other relevant laws in the US include the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act (ITADA), the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA), and various state-level computer crime statutes.

Computer Fraud vs Propaganda

Computer fraud and propaganda are distinct concepts, although they both involve manipulation and deception.

Similarity: involvement of manipulation and deception

Difference: Computer fraud is more focused on exploiting technological vulnerabilities for financial gain or malicious purposes, whereas propaganda aims to shape public perception and behavior through the dissemination of biased or misleading information.

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Computer Fraud

Computer fraud refers to the intentional and deceptive use of computer technology to manipulate, steal, or gain unauthorized access to information or resources for financial gain or malicious purposes. It involves actions such as hacking, phishing, identity theft, and spreading malware.

The primary goal of computer fraud is often to extract money, valuable assets, or sensitive data from individuals, organizations, or businesses through technological means.


Propaganda involves disseminating information or ideas, often biased or misleading, to influence and manipulate public opinion or behavior.

Propaganda shapes perceptions, beliefs, or attitudes on a particular issue or topic. It can be spread through various channels, including media, social platforms, speeches, and advertisements.

The objective of propaganda is to achieve a specific political, social, or ideological outcome by shaping how people think and feel about certain subjects.

Frequently Asked Questions Related to Computer Fraud

What is computer fraud, and how does it differ from hacking?

Computer fraud refers to intentionally deceptive actions using technology to manipulate, steal, or gain unauthorized access for financial gain or malicious purposes. Hacking involves unauthorized access to computer systems, often with the intent to modify, steal, or damage data. While hacking can be a form of computer fraud, not all computer fraud involves hacking.

How do cybercriminals use social engineering techniques to commit computer fraud?

Cybercriminals use social engineering to manipulate individuals into revealing confidential information or performing actions that benefit the attacker. Techniques like phishing, pretexting, and baiting exploit psychological factors to deceive victims into sharing information or downloading malicious content.

Can individuals and businesses recover from the financial losses caused by computer fraud?

Recovery from computer fraud depends on various factors, including the extent of the damage, the speed of response, and the effectiveness of cybersecurity measures. Individuals can often recover losses through legal and financial means. Businesses may have insurance or legal options, but prevention and preparedness are crucial for minimizing the impact.

What should I do if I suspect that I’ve fallen victim to a phishing scam?

If you suspect you’ve fallen victim to a phishing scam, take immediate action:

  • Change compromised passwords.
  • Contact your bank or financial institution.
  • Report the incident to your local law enforcement.
  • Forward phishing emails to anti-phishing organizations.
  • Regularly monitor your accounts for unauthorized activity.

How can AI and machine learning contribute to preventing computer fraud?

AI and machine learning can analyze large datasets to identify patterns and anomalies associated with fraudulent activities. They can enhance fraud detection by flagging unusual behavior, assisting in risk assessment, and enabling real-time responses to potential threats.

Are there any notable cases where computer fraud led to significant legal consequences?

Yes, several cases have resulted in significant legal consequences. One example is the Bernie Madoff Ponzi scheme, which led to a 150-year prison sentence. The Equifax data breach also resulted in legal penalties and settlements due to compromised personal data.

What is the role of encryption in safeguarding sensitive information from computer fraud?

Encryption converts data into a secure code that can only be deciphered with the correct decryption key. It helps protect sensitive information from unauthorized access, ensuring that even if data is intercepted, it remains unreadable and unusable without proper authorization.

Computer fraud is a persistent and evolving threat that demands our attention and proactive measures. By understanding its various forms, staying informed about the latest cybersecurity practices, and fostering a culture of vigilance, we can collectively safeguard our digital lives and fortify the digital realm against the menace of computer fraud.