What is the Dark Web?

What is the darknet compared to the open Internet

Unlike the open Internet, whose pages can be found via search engines such as Google, the Darknet or Deep Web is hidden from view. Here a network is created from and between all participants, classical servers do not exist. The internet has become a crucial part of our lives. It has revolutionized how we communicate, … Read more

DNS over HTTPS (DoH)


According to Google’s own September 2019 transparency report, 94 percent of all HTTP connections are encrypted. DNS queries, however, still travel over the Ether in clear text, as if nothing has changed in the last 30 years. The implications for privacy and data security are undeniable. In today’s world, the internet has become an essential … Read more

What Is a Domain Controller?

What Is a Domain Controller?

A domain controller is a central instance of a network domain that manages and controls its objects as well as user rights and roles. It is a server that has been set up as a domain controller by the administrator. Users who want to log in and access objects in a domain contact the controller … Read more

What is Metasploit?

What is Metasploit

Metasploit is an open-source project that provides, among other things, the Metasploit framework. It contains a collection of exploits that can be used to test the security of computer systems. Metasploit can also be misused as a tool for hackers. Metasploit is a powerful and versatile penetration testing framework that has become an essential tool … Read more

What Is Network Encryption?


Network encryption operates on layer 2 or 3 of the OSI layer model. It ensures the confidentiality and integrity of transmitted data as well as the authenticity of communication partners and is transparent to higher-layer protocols or applications. In today’s digital age, communication over the internet is becoming increasingly prevalent. However, this ease of communication … Read more

What is 802.1X?

What Is 802.1x

The IEEE 802.1X standard operates at layer two of the OSI reference model and allows access control to cable-based or wireless local area networks (LANs and WLANs). It provides a secure authentication procedure and uses protocols and standards such as the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) and RADIUS. In the WLAN environment, access control with this … Read more

What is a VLAN?

What is a VLAN

As computer networks continue to expand in size and complexity, new technologies are being developed to help manage and optimize data communication. One such technology is a VLAN, or Virtual Local Area Network. VLANs allow devices to be grouped together into logical networks, even if they are physically located on different parts of a larger … Read more

What Is Overlay Network?

Overlay networks have become increasingly popular in recent years, as they offer a unique way of connecting computers and devices across multiple networks. An overlay network is a virtual network that is built on top of an existing network, creating a layer of abstraction between the physical network and the applications that use it. This … Read more

What is a DMZ? Understanding Concept of Demilitarized Zone

What is a DMZ

What is a DMZ? The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is an independent network that acts as a buffer zone between an external network and the internal network. The buffer network contains, for example, web servers or mail servers whose communication is monitored by firewalls. As businesses and organizations become more dependent on technology and online presence, … Read more

What is LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol)?

What is LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol)

What is LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol)? The Link Layer Discovery Protocol works on layer two of the OSI reference model and is specified in the IEEE 802.1AB standard. Neighboring devices in a network can use the protocol to exchange information. The devices store the information they receive in their Management Information Base. Typical applications … Read more

What Is a Proxy & How Does It Work?

What is a proxy

A proxy is a software instance or a server that acts as an intermediary in a network. It receives requests and forwards them by proxy. Proxies can be used, for example, to obfuscate communication between local end devices and web servers, to speed it up, or to secure it. Have you ever been restricted from … Read more

What is Cyberwar?

What is Cyberwar

Cyberwar is a warlike confrontation between states in virtual space, which is conducted by means of information technology. The aim of cyberwar is to damage countries, institutions, or society electronically and to disrupt important infrastructures. With the increasing reliance on digital technology and the interconnectedness of the world, cyberwarfare has become a growing concern for … Read more